Republika Hrvatska (Republic Of Croatia)
of the Republic of Croatia consists of three colors: red, white and blue,
with the historical Croatian coat of arms in the center. The length is twice
the width. Its colors, in the order red, white and blue are laid horizontally,
each one third the width of the flag. The coat of arms is placed in the center
of the flag so that the upper part of the coat of arms (the crown) overlaps the
red field of the flag, and the bottom part overlaps the flag's blue field. The
center of the coat of arms is placed at the point where the diagonals of the
At the time of the Croatian national renaissance the Illyrian
traditional jackets also were most often red, white or blue. All three colors
were also part of the ceremonial inaugural uniform of Viceroy Josip Jelacic in
1848. The tricolor flag (red-white-blue) from the same year was also preserved.
The flag is a symbol of the Croatian national reformers' striving for the
unification of the Croatian lands.
The national anthem
The national anthem of the Republic of Croatia is
"Lijepa Nasa Domovina" ("Our Beautiful
Homeland"). The author of the lyrics is Antun Mihanovic. The lyrics
were first printed in Danica ("The Morning Star") magazine in 1835 under the
title "Hrvatska Domovina" ("Croatian Homeland"). It became the Croatian anthem
under the name "Lijepa Nasa" ("Our Beautiful").
Josip Runjanin wrote the score to Mihanovic's lyrics during his
service in Glina in 1846. V. Lichtenegger harmonized and wrote down Runjanin's
score in 1861. The song was first sung as the national anthem in 1891, at an
exhibition held by the Croatian-Slavonian Economic Society in
Lijepa Nasa Domovina (Our Beautiful Homeland)
Oj junacka zemljo mila,
Stare slave djedovino,
Da bi vazda
Mila, kano si nam slavna,
Mila si nam ti jedina,
kuda si nam ravna,
Mila kuda si planina!
Teci Savo, Dravo teci,
Nit ti, Dunav, silu gubi!
Sinje more, svijetu reci,
Da svoj narod Hrvat ljubi!
Dok mu njive
Dok mu hrasce bura vije,
Dok mu mrtve grobak krije,
mu zivo srce bije.
The coat of arms
of arms of the Republic of Croatia is a historical Croatian coat of arms in the
shape of a shield. The checkered pattern has twenty five alternating red and
white (argent) fields, so that the left upper corner of the shield is red. Above
the shield is a crown with five peaks, which touches the sinister and the dexter
chief (left and right upper ends) of the shield, bending in a slight arch. The
crown is divided into five small shields with historical Croatian coat of arms,
in the following order, from left to right: the oldest known Croatian coat of
arms, then the coat of arms of the Dubrovnik Republic, Dalmatia, Istria and
The height of the smaller fields in the crown is 2.5 times the
size of the fields in the main shield, while the width of both sets of fields
are the same.
The oldest known Croatian coat of arms has a yellow (golden)
six-pointed star and a white (argent) new moon on a blue shield. The coat of
arms of the Dubrovnik Republic has two red beams on a navy blue shield. The
Dalmatian coat of arms has three yellow (golden) crowned leopard's heads on a
navy blue shield. The Istrian coat of arms has a yellow (golden) goat with red
hoofs and horns facing left, on a navy blue shield. The Slavonian coat of arms
has two horizontal white (argent) beams on a blue sheild. Between the beams
there is a red field with a marten in motion facing left. There is a yellow
(golden) six-pointed star in the chief blue field. The entire coat of arms is
trimmed by a red line.
The Croatian coat of arms was presented for the first
time on the Habsburg genealogy of 1508-1512. It is believed that this coat of
arms appeared even earlier than that. It was also found on a memorial taler of
1525 and on the seal of the Croatian Electoral Assembly in Cetina on January 1,
1527, when Ferdinand 1 was elected the King of Croatia.
Zagreb (1991 census pop. 960,000)
Other major cities are Split (pop. 206, 612) the main city in
Dalmatcia, Rijeka (pop. 205,836) the most important port in the country, Osijek
(164,577)the largest city in Slavonia, Pula (84,606) a major port and prime city
in Istria, Zadar (134,881), Sibenik (84,435), and Dubrovnik (70,672) are all
large medieval cities and cultural centers in southern Croatia.
Area & Population
||56.538 sq km|
|Length of Coastline (mainline)
|Area of Coastline (islands)
|Number of Islands and Isles
||1185 (66 inhabitated)|
|The Following Are A Few Of The Many Larger Croatian
- Krk 410 sq. km.
- Cres 404 sq. km.
- Brac 396 sq. km.
- Hvar 298 sq. km.
- Pag 287 sq. km.
- Korcula 273 sq. km.
- Dugi Otok 117 sq. km.
- Mijet 98 sq. km
- Rab 93 sq. km.
- Vis 90 sq. km.
|Population (1991. census)
Population of Croatia's major cities
(according to 1991. census)
||Growth Rate per 1,000|
The Croatian language
The Croatian language and the Latin script are in official use
in the Republic of Croatia. The oldest written monument is "The Plaque of Baka"
from the 11 th century. The first used scripts were the Glagolitic and Cyrillic
script but the Latin script prevailed since the 14th century. The issue of
language has always been a political issue of the greatest importance in
Croatia. The Croatian language has always been juxtaposed to German, Hungarian,
Italian and Latin, but preserved its identity. Serbs take as their standpoint
the thesis that the language of Croats and that of Serbs is unitary
("Serbo-Croatian"). Croatian attempts to achieve linguistic emancipation along
with independence and national freedom go back to the middle of the 19th century
but the name and the use of the Croatian language was first guaranteed in the
Constitution of 1990.
|Others of unknown:
|January 1- New Year's Day
January 6 - Epiphany
Easter and Easter Monday
May 1- Labour Day
May 30 - Statehood Day
June 22 - Day of Antifascist Victory
August 5 - Homeland Thanksgiving Day
August 15 - Assumption of Mary
November 1 - All Saints Day
December 25, 26 - Christmas Holidays
|- for the members of the Jewish community
|- for the members of the Muslim community
Croatian Kuna (HRK 1 = 100 Lipa) is the
official Croatian currency. Paper money comes in the following denominations;
HRK 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000, and 50 Lipa. Exchange rates offered
in the exchange offices are adjusted to the world exchange rates and domestic
offer. Exchange rates are also published in the daily press and by financial
institutions that display them in visible places. Foreign and local currencies
can be exchanged in banks and exchange offices. Travel agencies and banks have
their branch offices at border-crossings. The exchange rate fluctuation is
around 1 %.
Who Is On The Kuna Bill
- 5 kn - Ban (Viceroy) Peter Zrinski and Knez (Duke) Fran Krsto Frankopan
- 10 kn - Juraj Dobrila
- 20 kn - Ban (Viceroy) Josip Jelacic
- 50 kn - Ivan Gundulic
- 100 kn - Ivan Mazuranic
- 200 kn - Stjepan Radic
- 500 kn - Marko Marulic
- 1,000 kn - Ante Starcevic
Credit cards are normally used in Croatia.
Accepted are the following cards: EUROCARD/MASTERCARD, VISA, DINERS and
AMERICAN EXPRESS, as well as other credit cards issued by domestic credit
institutions (Zagrebacka banka, Splitska banka and several other banks). Tourist
companies accept them as payment instrument.
Entrance of Croatia is allowed against a valid passport or any
other personal identification document recognized by a bilateral agreement. The
border police issues, against a certain duty, document allowing passing the
border, valid for a period of three months. A visa, if required, can be obtained
at each border-crossing. However, the applicants are advised to contact the
nearest Croatian diplomatic mission. Owners of vehicles are obliged to show the
international motor vehicle insurance card.
Foreign visitors are allowed to tax-free import of personal
luggage, including 200 cigarettes of 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco and a bottle
of spirits. Customs duties, approximated to a half of the price of the purchased
goods, are charged for larger quantities. A customs declaration has to be filled
in when importing music instruments, camping or diving equipment (including
oxygen bottles), radio equipment, etc., according to which the same items can be
taken out of Croatia. Pets (dogs, cats) must have a valid vaccination
certificate. Export of works of art, antique objects, sculptures, paintings and
other objects of cultural heritage as well as gold and silver is possible only
against a valid permit.
The Republic of Croatia has concluded special agreements a
number of European countries regulating health service in terms of providing the
same benefits (free medical chech-upis) enjoyed by the local population; foreign
visitors should have health insurance certificate with them. No vaccination is
required for entering Croatia. All larger places offer public medical service,
and there are also hospitals in major centres and tourist resorts.
In 1993 there were 21,736 km of roads (including 302 km of
motorways). Traffic regulations are the same as in the most European countries:
driving on the right side, roadway marking and the same traffic regulations
apply in Croatia as in the majority of the traffic signs are international,
notes are in Latin script. USA of safety belts is obligatory. Prescribed
equipment in the car: spare set of bulbs, a warning triangle, pull rope, snow
chains in winter. Non-professional drivers are allowed to have the blood alcohol
level up to 0,5%o.
The speed limits are posted along the roads. If not
posted the speed limit is as follows: dual carriageway motorways 130 km/h, other
highways90 km/h, roads in residential areas 60 km/h. The maximum allowed speed
for passenger cars with trailers is 80 km/h.
Main roads are international
roads (MC), MC12: Hungarian border - Zagreb - Rijeka; MC11: Slovenian border -
Krapina - Zagreb - Bihac (Bosnia and Herzegovina); MC1: Slovenian border -
Zagreb - Yugoslav border; MC2: the Adriatic main road, etc. There is a highway
from Zagreb to Oprisavci near Slavonski Brod, a highway from Zagreb to Karlovac
and from Rijeka (trunk road) to Delnice. Tolls are charged on highways.
The Croatian Motoring Club (HAK), providing
break-down service, has a unique phone number - 987; telephone booths are found
along the highways. In case of car crash with substantial damage, the police
should be notified, the crash site marked with a warning triangle, personal data
are to be exchanged and the motor insurance card is to be shown.
In 1993 there were 2,699 km of 1,435 mm gauge (983 km
electrified). In 1993 railways carried 18.5 million passengers and 11.6 million
tones of freight.
Passenger railroad traffic on Croatian railways is adjusted
to transportation of workers and students (commuters). The Croatian Railways
play an important role in international railroad traffic (EC Mimara: Zagreb -
Munchen - Berlin).
Croatia has ten international airports: Zagreb, Split,
Dubrovnik, Rijeka, Pula, Zadar, Osijek, Vrsar, Ploce, Cunski on the
island of Lošinj, and Brac on the island of Brac. The airports
in Dubrovnik, Zagreb and Split are of great importance for tourism. The domestic
airline company Croatia Airlines maintains air connections with all important
centres in Europe. Additional flights, if necessary, are provided by foreign
Ferry and ship connections, apart from local communications,
operate on regular international routes: Venice - Split - Dubrovnik; Trieste -
Rijeka - Split - Durres (Albania); Zadar - Ancona; Split - Pescara; Dubrovnik -
Bari. The Croatian passenger marine includes fast hydrofoil boats. Croatian
ports accommodate many foreign tourist ships and yachts during the tourist
Oil and Gas
1.73 million tones of crude oil was produced in 1993, and 1,835
cubic meters of natural gas in 1991.
Fuel supply is
very good. Every large place has petrol stations open generally from 6:00 a.m.
to 8:00 p.m. Petrol stations in big towns and cities as well as on important
roads are open non-stop. Type of fuel at the petrol stations is marked (SUPER,
EWUROSUPER 95, D1, D2). Motor oil, standard spare parts, car cosmetics, etc. can
also be bought there. Radio stations provide information about traffic. In the
summer months news and traffic information are broadcast in several foreign
languages (English, German, Italian) five times a day (at 8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.,
2:00 p.m., 8:00 p.m. and at midnight).
Telephone network is administered by the Post. There are
telephone booths in many places in every town; telephone sets operate by means
of magnetic cards. Automatic telephone lines exist with other states (country
and area codes are given in Table on p.579). International access code is 00,
after which the country code is to be dialed.
TELEPHONE PREFIX FOR CROATIA: 385
099 - MOBITEL cellular phone network covers 91 % of the
territory of the Republic of Croatia, and almost 99 % of inhabited areas.
098 - GSM - CRONET cellular phone network covers over 40 % of the total
territory and about 75 % of inhabited areas in Croatia, whereby the coverage of
tourist resorts, major roads, towns and cities is provided. HT (Croatian
Telecommunications) have concluded roaming agreements with 64 GSM operators from
36 countries in the world, having provided the GSM users with today most modern
way of communications.
Also, VIPNET (091 -GSM) has concluded roaming
agreements with 46 GSM operators from 30 countries in the world, having provided
the GSM users with today most modern way of communications.
Post offices have the same office hours as shops. Post offices
in bigger places are open on Sundays. Most of the offices offer cable and fax
services. Post savings banks offer all banking transactions. Foreign visitors
can draw certain amounts of money from the savings books of their post offices.
Letter and postcards are delivered to addressees in Europe within three to five
days; post stamps are sold at post offices, stationary shops and at the
The National Bank is the bank of issue. Total saving deposits
on Dec. 31, 1994 were 8,915 million Kuna.
There are stock exchanges in Zagreb and in
Office hours are usually from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Banks,
post offices, travel agencies and exchange offices have various office hours.
Working hours (in larger towns) are from 8:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Saturdays from
8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. or, in smaller places, two-shift working hours apply,
from 8:00 a.m. to 12 noon and from 3:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m., Saturdays to 12 noon.
Some shops are open from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.; also some shops apply
two-shift working hours; there are some shops (in more important tourist
centres) working round the clock. Market places in larger centres open at 6:00
a.m. and close at 2:00 or 3:00 p.m. On Sundays some shops, florists and stands
are open in the morning as well as museums and larger galleries. On Mondays most
museums and galleries are closed.
There are some catering objects open already at 6:00 a.m.;
alcoholic drinks are served from 7:00 a.m. Almost all bars close at 12:00 p.m.
(with the exception of discotheques, clubs, night clubs, some catering
establishments on special locations). most of the bars and restaurants are open
of Sundays, some of them on holidays.
Working hours in tourist resorts, on border-crossings and
important traffic points are adjusted to the season; the same applies to travel
agencies, restaurants and shops.
The prices in shops include taxes. Foreign visitors can require
VAT tax refund for the goods purchased in Croatia if the goods are carried out
of the country. Every single invoice must exceed HRK 500.00 (not applicable for
petroleum products). Shops have to issue a bill for all paid merchandise.
Duty-free sale is offered at the airports, and the customs regulations apply to
all purchased goods.
Police 92, Fire Brigade 93, Ambulance 94, Automobile
Club Road Assistance Service 987.
Electrical voltage: 220V, 50 Hz
Output was 9,437 million kwh in 1993.
Is safe for drinking throughout the country.
Regarding the souvenirs, some of the regions have their
specific offer, often of a high-quality craftsmanship (Šestine
umbrellas, “penkala” pens, protected models
and casts of works of art) or artistic level (lacework - Pag,
Hvar, Lepoglava). Supreme quality wines can also be bought.
TV and Radio
In Croatia there are 3 national TV networks, and lot of local
networks. The broadcast is in Croatian language. Every morning on HTV 3 there is
a live picture from panoramic cameras located in almost all tourist centers
(Opatija, Sukosan, Sibenik, Split, Hvar, Dubrovnik, Bjelolasica). In almost all
hotels and lot of private pensions there is Satellite TV. TV broadcast standard
is European PAL.
During the tourist season national and local radio stations
have news on foreign languages almost every hour.